role Associative

Object that supports looking up values by key

role Associative[::TValue = Mu, ::TKey = Str(Any)] { }

A common role for types that support name-based lookup through postcircumfix:<{ }>, for example Hash and Map. It is used for type checks in operators that expect to find specific methods to call. See Subscripts for details.

The % sigil restricts variables to objects that do Associative, so you will have to mix in that role if you want to use it for your classes.

class Whatever {};
my %whatever :=;
# OUTPUT: «Type check failed in binding; expected Associative but got Whatever 

Please note that we are using binding := here, since by default % assignments expect a Hash in the right-hand side. However, with the Associative role:

class Whatever is Associative {};
my %whatever :=;

will be syntactically correct.


method of

Defined as:

method of()

Associative is actually a parameterized role which can use different classes for keys and values. As seen at the top of the document, by default it coerces to Str for the key and uses a very generic Mu for value.

my %any-hash;
say %any-hash.of;#  OUTPUT: «(Mu)␤»

The value is the first parameter you use when instantiating Associative with particular classes:

class DateHash is Hash does Associative[Cool,DateTime{};
my %date-hash :=;
say %date-hash.of# OUTPUT: «(Cool)␤»

method keyof

Defined as:

method keyof()

Returns the parameterized key used for the Associative role, which is Any coerced to Str by default. This is the class used as second parameter when you use the parameterized version of Associative.

my %any-hash;
%any-hash.keyof#OUTPUT: «(Str(Any))␤»

Methods that should be provided

You need to provide these methods if you want your class to implement the Associative role.

method AT-KEY

method AT-KEY(\key)

Should return the value / container at the given key.


method EXISTS-KEY(\key)

Should return a Bool indicating whether the given key actually has a value.

method STORE

method STORE(\values:$initialize)

This method should only be supplied if you want to support the:

my %h is Foo = => 42=> 666;

syntax for binding your implementation of the Associative role.

Should accept the values to (re-)initialize the object with, which either could consist of Pairs, or separate key/value pairs. The optional named parameter will contain a True value when the method is called on the object for the first time. Should return the invocant.

See also

See Methods to implement for positional subscripting for information about additional methods that can be implemented for the Associative role.

Type Graph

Type relations for Associative
perl6-type-graph Associative Associative QuantHash QuantHash QuantHash->Associative Mu Mu Any Any Any->Mu Telemetry Telemetry Telemetry->Any Telemetry::Period Telemetry::Period Telemetry::Period->Associative Telemetry::Period->Telemetry Cool Cool Cool->Any Iterable Iterable Map Map Map->Associative Map->Cool Map->Iterable Pair Pair Pair->Associative Pair->Any PseudoStash PseudoStash PseudoStash->Map Hash Hash Hash->Map Baggy Baggy Baggy->QuantHash Setty Setty Setty->QuantHash Stash Stash Stash->Hash BagHash BagHash BagHash->Any BagHash->Baggy Bag Bag Bag->Any Bag->Baggy Mixy Mixy Mixy->Baggy SetHash SetHash SetHash->Any SetHash->Setty Set Set Set->Any Set->Setty

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