Concurrent execution of code (low-level)
A thread is a sequence of instructions that can (potentially) run in parallel to others. Class
Thread provides a bit of abstraction over threads provided by the underlying virtual machines (which in turn might or might not be operating system threads).
my = (^10).map:.finish for ;
The current thread is available in the dynamic variable
method new(:!, Bool : = False, Str : = '<anon>' --> Thread)
Creates and returns a new
Thread, without starting it yet.
&code is the code that will be run in a separate thread.
$name is a user-specified string that identifies the thread.
$app_lifetime is set to
True, then the thread is killed when the main thread of the process terminates. If set to
False, the process will only terminate when the thread has finished.
method start(Thread: , Bool : = False, Str : = '<anon>' --> Thread)
Creates, runs and returns a new
Thread. Note that it can (and often does) return before the thread's code has finished running.
Runs the thread, and returns the invocant. It is an error to run a thread that has already been started.
method id(Thread: --> Int)
Returns a numeric, unique thread identifier.
Waits for the thread to finish. This is called join in other programming systems.
Waits for the thread to finish.
Tells the scheduler to prefer another thread for now.
method app_lifetime(Thread: --> Bool)
False unless the named parameter
:app_lifetime is specifically set to
True during object creation. If the method returns
False it means that the process will only terminate when the thread has finished while
True means that the thread will be killed when the main thread of the process terminates.
my = Thread.new(code => );my = Thread.new(code => , :app_lifetime);say .app_lifetime; # OUTPUT: «False␤»say .app_lifetime; # OUTPUT: «True␤»
method name(Thread: --> Str)
Returns the user defined string, which can optionally be set during object creation in order to identify the
Thread, or '<anon>' if no such string was specified.
my = Thread.new(code => );my = Thread.new(code => , name => 'my thread');say .name; # OUTPUT: «<anon>␤»say .name; # OUTPUT: «my thread␤»
method Numeric(Thread: --> Int)
Returns a numeric, unique thread identifier, i.e. the same as id.
method Str(Thread: --> Str)
my = Thread.new(code => , name => 'calc thread');say .Str; # OUTPUT: «Thread<3>(calc thread)␤»
method is-initial-thread(--> Bool)
Returns a Bool indicating whether the current thread (if called as a class method) or the Thread object on which it is called, is the initial thread the program started on.
say Thread.is-initial-thread; # True if this is the initial threadsay .is-initial-thread; # True if $*THREAD is the initial thread
Please note there is no guarantee that this is actually the main thread from the OS's point of view. Also note that if you need this other than from a pure introspection / debugging point of view, that there are probably better ways to achieve what you're trying to achieve.
Performs a full memory barrier, preventing re-ordering of reads/writes. Required for implementing some lock-free data structures and algorithms.